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Google Sheets Formulas

How to Run a T-Test in Google Sheets

Running a T-Test in Google Sheets can be an effective way to determine whether there is a statistical significance to the difference between two data sets. 

Your T-Test will require 4 inputs. Two of these are your data sets, next is deciding whether your test requires one or two tails, and a final input to declare whether you want a single sample test, a two-sample test, or a two-sample paired test to be run. To run a T-Test in Google Sheets, follow these steps:

To set up a T-Test, you must have two data sets you want to compare. To compare them, we will be using the T-Test function in Google Sheets.

To do this, type the following into your cell:


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  • Your first two arguments will be selecting the data ranges you wish to compare, separated by a comma. It should look something like the example below. 

How to Run a T-Test in Google Sheets

  • Once you have both data sets entered into your formula, you must type either “1” or “2” to select a one or two tailed test. Read further into this guide for help figuring out which is best for you to use.

  • Lastly, you will need to type a number 1-3, each corresponding to a different type of T-Test. A “1” will result in a one sample test being run, a “2” will run a two-sample test, and a “3” will provide a two-sample paired test. 

  • Once you have selected the appropriate test, you can close your parenthesis or press enter to run your T-Test. The resulting number is your P-value. 

P-Value from T-Test in Google Sheets

Should I Run a One or Two-Tailed T-Test?

It is important to know whether you want a one or two-tailed T-Test to be run by your Google Sheets formula. A one-tailed test will show the possibility of an effect in one direction, while a two-tailed test shows the possibility of effect in two directions.

This means that a one-tailed test will be useful when looking at whether or not one data set is either above or below the other. A common use for this would be cost savings.

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You can run a one-tailed T-Test after implementing new cost saving measures to determine whether the mean cost is significantly different from previous methods. 

A two-tailed test will allow you to determine whether there is a significant difference between the means of two different groups while allowing for differences in either direction (greater or smaller). Two-tailed tests are most useful when taking a conservative approach to your hypothesis.

Because the two-tailed test shows differences in both directions, it is less specific and therefore provides a more general answer as to the difference in means. 

What Does my T-Test Result Mean?

The resulting number from your T-Test formula being run is known as the P-value. Your P-value should be a decimal, and if it is lower than .05, it is a statistically significant P-value. 

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